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ScienceDirect Publication: Free Radical Biology and Medicine
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  • Trx-1 ameliorates learning and memory deficits in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in mice

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): Xianwen Zhang, Liping Bai, Se Zhang, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Ye Li, Jie Bai

    Abstract

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), characteristic motor symptoms and cognitive impairment. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox protein and protects neurons from various injuries. Our previous study has shown that Trx-1 overexpression attenuates movement disorder in PD. However, whether Trx-1 ameliorates cognitive deficits in PD is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Trx-1 on learning and memory in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD model in mice. We demonstrated that deficits in learning and memory were induced by MPTP in mice through the elevated plus-maze test. We found that the retention transfer latency time was shorten, escape latency was decreased and the number of platform crossings was increased in the Morris water maze (MWM) in Trx-1 transgenic (TG) mice when compared with wild type mice. The expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) were decreased by MPTP, which were restored in Trx-1 TG mice. The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit (NR2B), the levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were decreased by MPTP, which were reversed in Trx-1 TG mice. These results suggest that Trx-1 ameliorates learning and memory deficits in MPTP-induced PD model in mice via modulating the D1R and the NMDAR-ERK1/2-CREB pathway. Trx-1 may be a therapy target for learning and memory deficits in PD.

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  • Targeting redox vulnerability of cancer cells by prooxidative intervention of a glutathione-activated Cu(II) pro-ionophore: Hitting three birds with one stone

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): Xia-Zhen Bao, Fang Dai, Xin-Rong Li, Bo Zhou

    Abstract

    Altered redox homeostasis including higher levels of copper, reduced glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells than in normal cells illustrates their redox vulnerability, and has opened a window for developing prooxidative anticancer agents (PAAs) to hit this status. However, how to design PAAs with high selectivity in killing cancer cells over normal cells remains a challenge. Herein we designed a 3-hydroxyflavone-inspired copper pro-ionophore (PHF) as a potent PAA based on the GSH-mediated conversion of 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonates to enols. Mechanistic investigation reveals that it is capable of exploiting increased levels of GSH in cancer cells to in situ release an active ionophore, 3-hydroxyflavone, inducing redox imbalance (copper accumulation, GSH depletion and ROS generation) and achieving highly selective killing of cancer cells upon specific transport of small amounts of Cu(II). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first example of Cu(II) pro-ionophore type of PAA which hits (changes) the three birds (abnormal copper, GSH and ROS levels in cancer cells) with one stone (PHF) in terms of its ability to induce preferentially redox imbalance of cancer cells by copper accumulation, GSH depletion and ROS generation.

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  • C60 fullerene accumulation in human leukemic cells and perspectives of LED-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): Anna Grebinyk, Sergii Grebinyk, Svitlana Prylutska, Uwe Ritter, Olga Matyshevska, Thomas Dandekar, Marcus Frohme

    Abstract

    Recent progress in nanobiotechnology has attracted interest to a biomedical application of the carbon nanostructure C60 fullerene since it possesses a unique structure and versatile biological activity. C60 fullerene potential application in the frame of cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT) relies on rapid development of new light sources as well as on better understanding of the fullerene interaction with cells.

    The aim of this study was to analyze C60 fullerene effects on human leukemic cells (CCRF-CEM) in combination with high power single chip light-emitting diodes (LEDs) light irradiation of different wavelengths: ultraviolet (UV, 365 nm), violet (405 nm), green (515 nm) and red (632 nm). The time-dependent accumulation of fullerene C60 in CCRF-CEM cells up to 250 ng/106 cells at 24 h with predominant localization within mitochondria was demonstrated with immunocytochemical staining and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. In a cell viability assay we studied photoexcitation of the accumulated C60 nanostructures with ultraviolet or violet LEDs and could prove that significant phototoxic effects did arise. A less pronounced C60 fullerene phototoxic effect was observed after irradiation with green, and no effect was detected with red light. A C60 fullerene photoactivation with violet light induced substantial ROS generation and apoptotic cell death, confirmed by caspase3/7 activation and plasma membrane phosphatidylserine externalization. Our work proved C60 fullerene ability to induce apoptosis of leukemic cells after photoexcitation with high power single chip 405 nm LED as a light source. This underlined the potential for application of C60 nanostructure as a photosensitizer for anticancer therapy.

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  • Cannabidiol induced apoptosis in human monocytes through mitochondrial permeability transition pore-mediated ROS production

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): Hsin-Ying Wu, Chung-Hsiung Huang, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Chia-Chi Wang, Tong-Rong Jan

    Abstract

    Cannabidiol (CBD) has been reported to induce apoptosis in immune cells through oxidative stress-related mechanisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the cellular mechanisms for CBD-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in human monocytes. Exposure of freshly isolated human monocytes to CBD induced apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Time-course analyses revealed the induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at 1–2 h post CBD (16 μM) exposure. By comparison, the CBD treatment rapidly elicited the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) within 5 min, and the oxidation of cardiolipin, a major lipid component of the mitochondrial inner membrane, within 15 min. Moreover, CBD induced the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria. Mechanistic studies revealed that CBD-induced ROS production and apoptosis were not associated with the alteration of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity, the electron leakage through mitochondrial respiratory chain, and Fe2+- and Ca2+-mediated mechanisms. In contrast, CBD-induced apoptosis and MMP depolarization were markedly attenuated by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA), but not the calcineurin inhibitor FK506. Furthermore, CsA prevented cardiolipin oxidation and the MPTP opening induced by CBD. The present study suggests that CBD acts on the mitochondria to elicit ROS generation and apoptosis through MPTP opening and provides critical insights into the cellular mechanisms for CBD-induced oxidative stress in apoptotic monocytes.

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  • High- and low-affinity PEGylated hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: Differential oxidative stress in a Guinea pig transfusion model

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): Esra'a Alomari, Luca Ronda, Stefano Bruno, Gianluca Paredi, Marialaura Marchetti, Stefano Bettati, Davide Olivari, Francesca Fumagalli, Deborah Novelli, Giuseppe Ristagno, Roberto Latini, Chris E. Cooper, Brandon J. Reeder, Andrea Mozzarelli

    Abstract

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are an investigational replacement for blood transfusions and are known to cause oxidative damage to tissues. To investigate the correlation between their oxygen binding properties and these detrimental effects, we investigated two PEGylated HBOCs endowed with different oxygen binding properties - but otherwise chemically identical - in a Guinea pig transfusion model. Plasma samples were analyzed for biochemical markers of inflammation, tissue damage and organ dysfunction; proteins and lipids of heart and kidney extracts were analyzed for markers of oxidative damage. Overall, both HBOCs produced higher oxidative stress in comparison to an auto-transfusion control group. Particularly, tissue 4-hydroxynonenal adducts, tissue malondialdehyde adducts and plasma 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine exhibited significantly higher levels in comparison with the control group. For malondialdehyde adducts, a higher level in the renal tissue was observed for animals treated with the high-affinity HBOC, hinting at a correlation between the HBOCs oxygen binding properties and the oxidative stress they produce. Moreover, we found that the high-affinity HBOC produced greater tissue oxygenation in comparison with the low affinity one, possibly correlating with the higher oxidative stress it induced.

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  • Characterizations of mitochondrial uncoupling induced by chemical mitochondrial uncouplers in cardiomyocytes

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): Jin-Lai Gao, Jing Zhao, Hai-Bin Zhu, Xuan Peng, Jun-Xue Zhu, Ming-Hui Ma, Yao Fu, Nan Hu, Yu Tai, Xiu-Chen Xuan, De-Li Dong

    Abstract

    Induction of mild mitochondrial uncoupling is protective in a variety of disorders; however, it is unclear how to recognize the mild mitochondrial uncoupling induced by chemical mitochondrial uncouplers. The aim of the present study is to identify the pharmacological properties of mitochondrial uncoupling induced by mitochondrial uncouplers in cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured. Protein levels were measured by using western blot technique. The whole cell respiratory function was determined by using high-resolution respirometry.

    The typical types of chemical mitochondrial uncouplers, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), niclosamide, and BAM15, induced biphasic change of STAT3 activity in cardiomyocytes, activating STAT3 at low dose and inhibiting STAT3 at high dose, though the dose range of these drugs was distinct. Low-dose uncouplers induced STAT3 activation through the mild increase of mitochondrial ROS (mitoROS) generation and the subsequent JAK/STAT3 activation in cardiomyocytes. However, high-dose uncouplers induced inhibition of STAT3, decrease of ATP production, and cardiomyocyte death. High-dose uncouplers induced STAT3 inhibition through the excessive mitoROS generation and the decreased ATP -induced AMPK activation. Low-dose mitochondrial uncouplers attenuated doxorubicin (DOX)-induced STAT3 inhibition and cardiomyocyte death, and activated STAT3 contributed to the cardioprotection of low-dose mitochondrial uncouplers. Uncoupler-induced mild mitochondrial uncoupling in cardiomyocytes is characterized by STAT3 activation and ATP increase whereas excessive mitochondrial uncoupling is characterized by STAT3 inhibition, ATP decrease and cell injury. Development of mitochondrial uncoupler with optimal dose window of inducing mild uncoupling is a promising strategy for heart protection.

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  • Long-lived and short-lived reactive species produced by a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet for the inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): V.S. Santosh K. Kondeti, Chi Q. Phan, Kristian Wende, Helena Jablonowski, Urvashi Gangal, Jennifer L. Granick, Ryan C. Hunter, Peter J. Bruggeman

    Abstract

    Different chemical pathways leading to the inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus by a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in buffered and non-buffered solutions are reported. As APPJs produce a complex mixture of reactive species in solution, a comprehensive set of diagnostics were used to assess the liquid phase chemistry. This includes absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in addition to a scavenger study to assess the relative importance of the various plasma produced species involved in the inactivation of bacteria. Different modes of inactivation of bacteria were found for the same plasma source depending on the solution and the plasma feed gas. The inactivation of bacteria in saline is due to the production of short-lived species in the case of argon plasma when the plasma touches the liquid. Long-lived species (ClO) formed by the abundant amount of O. radicals produced by the plasmas played a dominant role in the case of Ar + 1% O2 and Ar + 1% air plasmas when the plasma is not in direct contact with the liquid. Inactivation of bacteria in distilled water was found to be due to the generation of short-lived species: O. & O2. for Ar + 1% O2 plasma and O2. (and .OH in absence of saline) for Ar plasma.

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  • The high affinity of small-molecule antioxidants for hemoglobin

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): Cristina Puscas, Luana Radu, Francisco Carrascoza, Augustin C. Mot, Diana Amariei, Oana Lungu, Florina Scurtu, Paula Podea, Raluca Septelean, Alina Matei, Mihaela Mic, Amr. A. Attia, Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu

    Abstract

    Hemoglobin has previously been shown to display ascorbate peroxidase and urate peroxidase activity, with measurable Michaelis-Menten parameters that reveal a particularly low Km for ascorbate as well as for urate – lower than the respective in vivo concentrations of these antioxidants in blood. Also, direct detection of a hemoglobin-ascorbate interaction was possible by monitoring the 1H-NMR spectrum of ascorbate in the presence of hemoglobin. The relative difference in structures between ascorbate and urate may raise the question as to exactly what the defining structural features would be, for a substrate that binds to hemoglobin with high affinity. Reported here are Michaelis-Menten parameters for hemoglobin acting as peroxidase against a number of other substrates of varying structures – gallate, caffeate, rutin, 3-hydroxyflavone, 3,6-dihydroxyflavone, quercetin, epicatechin, luteolin – all with high affinities (some higher than those of physiologically-relevant redox partners of Hb – ascorbate and urate). Moreover, this high affinity appears general to animal hemoglobins. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra reveal a general pattern wherein small hydrophilic antioxidants appear to all have their signals affected, presumably due to binding to hemoglobin. Fluorescence and calorimetry measurements confirm these conclusions. Docking calculations confirm the existence of binding sites on hemoglobin and on myoglobin for ascorbate as well as for other antioxidants. Support is found for involvement of Tyr42 in binding of three out of the four substrates investigated in the case of hemoglobin (including ascorbate and urate, as blood-contained relevant substrates), but also for Tyr145 (with urate and caffeate) and Tyr35 (with gallate).

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  • B2-Lymphocyte responses to oxidative stress-derived antigens contribute to the evolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): Stefania Bruzzì, Salvatore Sutti, Gabriele Giudici, Michela E. Burlone, Naresh Naik Ramavath, Alberto Toscani, Cristina Bozzola, Pascal Schneider, Elisabetta Morello, Maurizio Parola, Mario Pirisi, Emanuele Albano

    Abstract

    Recent evidence implicates adaptive immunity as a key player in the mechanisms supporting hepatic inflammation during the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In these settings, patients with NAFLD often show an increase in the circulating levels of antibodies against oxidative stress-derived epitopes (OSE). Nonetheless, the actual role of humoral immunity in NAFLD is still unclear. This study investigates the contribution of B-lymphocytes to NAFLD evolution.

    B-lymphocyte immunostaining of liver biopsies from NAFLD patients showed that B-cells were evident within cell aggregates rich in T-lymphocytes. In these subjects, B/T-lymphocyte infiltration positively correlated with both circulating IgG targeting oxidative stress-derived epitopes (OSE) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels. Furthermore, high prevalence of lymphocyte aggregates identified patients with more severe lobular inflammation and fibrosis. In mouse models of NAFLD, the onset of steatohepatitis was characterized by hepatic B2-lymphocytes maturation to plasma cells and by an elevation in circulating anti-OSE IgG titers. B-cell responses preceded T-cell activation and were accompanied by the up-regulation in the hepatic expression of B-cell Activating Factor (BAFF). Selective B2-cell depletion in mice over-expressing a soluble form of the BAFF/APRIL receptor Transmembrane Activator and Cyclophilin Ligand Interactor (TACI-Ig) prevented plasma cell maturation and Th-1 activation of liver CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, TACI-Ig mice showed milder steatohepatitis and a decreased progression to fibrosis. Similarly, mice treatment with the BAFF-neutralizing monoclonal antibody Sandy-2 prevented hepatic B2-cell responses and ameliorated steatohepatitis.

    From these data we conclude that B2-lymphocyte activation is an early event in NAFLD evolution and contributes to the disease progression through the interaction with T-cells. Furthermore, combined clinical and experimental data suggest that elevated circulating anti-OSE IgG can identify a subset of NAFLD patients in whom adaptive immunity has a relevant role in the disease evolution toward fibrosis.

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  • Exercise recovery increases skeletal muscle H2O2 emission and mitochondrial respiratory capacity following two-weeks of limb immobilization

    Publication date: 20 August 2018

    Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 124

    Author(s): Chantal A. Pileggi, Christopher P. Hedges, Randall F. D'Souza, Brenan R. Durainayagam, James F. Markworth, Anthony J.R. Hickey, Cameron J. Mitchell, David Cameron-Smith

    Abstract

    Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse result in muscle atrophy. Following limb immobilization, increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may contribute to atrophy through increases in skeletal muscle protein degradation. However, the effect of skeletal muscle disuse on mitochondrial ROS production remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of immobilization, followed by two subsequent periods of restored physical activity, on mitochondrial H2O2 emissions in adult male skeletal muscle. Middle-aged men (n = 30, 49.7 ± 3.84 y) completed two weeks of unilateral lower-limb immobilization, followed by two weeks of baseline-matched activity, consisting of 10,000 steps a day, then completed two weeks of three times weekly supervised resistance training. Vastus lateralis biopsies were taken at baseline, post-immobilization, post-ambulatory recovery, and post-resistance-training. High-resolution respirometry was used simultaneously with fluorometry to determine mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in permeabilized muscle fibres. Mitochondrial H2O2 emission with complex I and II substrates, in the absence of ADP, was greater following immobilization, however, there was no effect on mitochondrial respiration. Both ambulatory recovery and resistance training, following the period of immobilization, increased in mitochondrial H2O2 emissions. These data demonstrated that 2 weeks of immobilization increases mitochondrial H2O2 emissions, but subsequent retraining periods of ambulatory recovery and resistance training also led to in robust increases in mitochondrial H2O2 emissions in skeletal muscle.

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